Your browser identifies itself as:

CCBot/2.0 (https://commoncrawl.org/faq/)

This browser is not identified as MSIE or Netscape 6.x. The software at this site assumes that you are using some other HTML 4.0 compliant browser, and the auto-select feature should display symbols from the first group below. But you may have better performance by manually selecting either Netscape 6.x or MSIE.

Greek Characters and mathematical symbols represented as character entities. All current browsers should display these acceptably, but quite a few are missing in MSIE:

**This is what you will see if you use the auto-select feature.**

α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ μ ν ξ
ο π ρ σ τ υ φ χ ψ ω

Α Β Γ Δ Ε Ζ Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν Ξ
Ο Π Ρ Σ Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω

for all: ∀ there exists: ∃ prime: ′ less than or equal: ≤ infinity: ∞ horizontal arrow: ↔ up arrow: ↑ right arrow: → plus or minus: ± double prime: ″ greater than or equal: ≥ proportional to: ∝ partial differentiation: ∂ not equal: ≠ intersection: ∩ union: ∪ proper subset: ⊂ subset: ⊆ element of: ∈ not an element of: ∉ nabla (del, gradient): ∇ radical (square root): √ middot: · small middle dot: ⋅ logical and: ∧ logical or: ∨ summation: ∑ bra (left angle bracket): ⟨ ket (right angle bracket): ⟩ Congruent to: ≅ Almost equal to: ≈ Contains as a member ∋ Alef (symbol) ℵ

Greek Characters referenced as Latin letters after specifying the Symbol font. This is normally broken in Netscape 6.x, but it does look best in MSIE (except for the up arrow, which MSIE thinks is a soft hyphen and refuses to print):

a b g d e z h q i k l m n x o p r s t u f c y w

A B G D E Z H Q I K L M N X O P R S T U F C Y W

for all: " there exists: $ prime: ¢ less than or equal: £ infinity: ¥ horizontal arrow: « up arrow: right arrow: ® plus or minus: ± double prime: ² greater than or equal: ³ proportional to: µ partial differentiation: ¶ not equal: ¹ intersection: Ç union: È proper subset: Ì subset: Í element of: Î not an element of: Ï nabla (del, gradient): Ñ radical (square root): Ö middot: · small midle dot: × logical and: Ù logical or: Ú summation: å bra (left angle bracket): á ket (right angle bracket): ñ

This is how it's supposed to work (and it works great in Netscape 6.x). Here, I tell the browser that the preferred font is symbol, and then give it the character entities. Netscape finds that the greek letters are in the symbol font and uses that font to display the greek letters. This looks best in my installation of Netscape 6.2 for Linux, but it's totally broken for MSIE.

α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ μ ν
ξ ο π ρ σ τ υ φ χ ψ ω

Α Β Γ Δ Ε Ζ Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν Ξ
Ο Π Ρ Σ Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω

Some other math quantities that are in the symbol font, represented as character entities, without specifying the font:

for all: ∀ there exists: ∃ prime: ′ less than or equal: ≤ infinity: ∞ horizontal arrow: ↔ up arrow: ↑ right arrow: → plus or minus: ± double prime: ″ greater than or equal: ≥ proportional to: ∝ partial differentiation: ∂ not equal: ≠ intersection: ∩ union: ∪ proper subset: ⊂ subset: ⊆ element of: ∈ not an element of: ∉ nabla (del, gradient): ∇ radical (square root): √ middot: · small middle dot: ⋅ logical and: ∧ logical or: ∨ summation: ∑ bra (left angle bracket): ⟨ ket (right angle bracket): ⟩

Please contact me if you are using a current browser (MSIE 5.0 or better, Netscape 6.0 or better or any other current browser) and none of the groups above is complete (except for the up arrow). I'll work for compatibility.

Steve SchaeferLast modified: Date: 2003/01/24